This is the third “vacation” post, revisiting some of the more important articles to have appeared on my blog over the years.
The original post and comments can be found here.
I originally posted a version of this in early 2017. I have updated it with additional information and quotes.
It’s important, especially in light of the ongoing prosecution of Danny Masterson, other investigations, and civil cases. Anyone who confronts scientology witnesses needs to understand the nature of the beast.
While repeatedly asserting that they are “the most ethical group on earth” and that they are constantly having to “get rid of” people who “cannot live up to their ethical standards,” in truth, every dedicated scientologist is a liar. Why?
The short answer: they believe that achieving the “Aims of Scientology” and “Clearing The Planet” are so vital for the well-being of all mankind that those ends justify any means.
But, as with most other things in scientology, the simple answer is also the simplistic answer that really doesn’t bring much understanding.
So, let’s break it down.
First, why do I say every dedicated scientologist is a liar? If you ask ANY scientologist about the “confidential upper level materials” they will lie and tell you “it’s not part of scientology” or “it’s not true” or “that is an alteration.” Even if you read or show them the exact writing by L. Ron Hubbard. If you ask any scientologist whether you can be a scientologist and a christian, the vast majority will tell you “absolutely” even though they know it is a lie (see “Can Scientologists be Christians or Jews Too?” ).
But the lying is not limited to these two things, and there is a lot of “scripture” that explains this.
Let us once again return to that all-important writing of L. Ron Hubbard: Keeping Scientology Working.
We’re not playing some minor game in Scientology. It isn’t cute or something to do for lack of something better. The whole agonized future of this planet, every Man, Woman and Child on it, and your own destiny for the next endless trillions of years depend on what you do here and now with and in Scientology. This is a deadly serious activity. And if we miss getting out of the trap now, we may never again have another chance. Remember, this is our first chance to do so in all the endless trillions of years of the past.
Scientologists take this to heart. Hubbard expressed it here and in many other places. The future of all mankind rests in the hands of those who have “the tech.” Everyone is counting on them, whether they know it or not and this is an awesome responsibility. NOTHING is more important than this and NOTHING must prevent scientology from achieving its objectives.
The Greatest Good for the Greatest Number of Dynamics
This is the guiding principle laid out by Hubbard as the foundation of all morality and even survival. Here is how Hubbard put it in 1980 in his Policy Letter entitled Ethics, Justice and the Dynamics.
An optimum solution to any problem would be that solution which brought the greatest benefits to the greatest number of dynamics.
He goes on to explain this concept:
To be good, a thing must contain construction which outweighs the destruction it contains. A new cure which saves a hundred lives and kills one is an acceptable cure.
To really understand what he is talking about it is necessary to understand “the Dynamics” in scientology. These are the 8 “urges towards survival”. Here is the description straight from the scientology website:
There is nothing inherently wrong with this. It makes some sense and seems benign.
Until you consider what the “3rd Dynamic” is for scientologists: Scientology. This is their group. And they honestly believe that scientology is the ONLY route to save every man, woman and child on planet earth. It is their belief that if scientology is flourishing, then every person, every family, every group, mankind and even animals and the environment will flourish.
So, the real equation for scientologists then becomes: :”If it is good for scientology, it increases survival across ALL Dynamics and thus it must be good.” This justifies not only lying but harming people so long as it is for the benefit of scientology.
The “Acceptable Truth” and the “Shore Story”
Hubbard explained that in scientology that there is something known as an “acceptable truth.” He defined it this way in his PR Series:
Handling truth is a touchy business also. You don’t have to tell everything you know-that would jam the comm line too. Tell an acceptable truth. Agreement with one’s message is what PR is seeking to achieve. Thus the message must compare to the personal experience of the audience.
Scientology “doctrine” also encompasses the “Shore Story” which is used to cover up the truth. It first came into use in the Sea Org during the Apollo years when Hubbard did not want to be found. Thus there was a “Shore Story” concocted that everyone on his ship Apollo had to learn when they were “ashore” – they were never to mention scientology, only that the Apollo was home to a “Management consulting company called Operation and Transport Corporation.” It was a lie, this was the elite top echelon of scientology on earth, but it was an “acceptable truth.” Again, when scientologists first moved to Clearwater, the “Shore Story” was that this was “United Churches of Florida” and that the buildings had been purchased by “Southern Land Development and Leasing Corporation.” Many “Shore Stories” have been used to conceal the truth from the media, government and public about scientology activities.
In scientology, when dealing with the outside world, the truth is malleable… Or more accurately, the truth in scientology is whatever they believe best serves to make scientology look good or conceal its involvement altogether.
The Code of Honor
Another foundational writing of Hubbard that scientologists rely on heavily is Hubbard’s “Code of Honor.” Again, this is from the scientology website.
Like the description of the Dynamics, there is nothing inherently wrong with this. Except in how it is applied.
MANY scientologists will quote paragraph 12 as the explanation that justifies immoral or unethical acts if those acts are in furtherance of “helping scientology” which is, of course, always a “just cause.”
We see these principles spelled out in the Fair Game policy.
Those designated as enemies of scientology may be, according to Hubbard:
…deprived of property or injured by any means by any Scientologist without any discipline of the Scientologist. May be tricked, sued or lied to or destroyed.
Scientology says this policy was canceled, but in fact, the policy of how to treat enemies (SPs) was NOT changed, only reference to the term “Fair Game” was canceled because “it caused bad public relations.”
The practice of declaring people FAIR GAME will cease. FAIR GAME may not appear on any Ethics Order. It causes bad public relations. This [policy letter] does not cancel any policy on the treatment or handling of an SP.
Anyone or anything thought to be an enemy of scientology may be lied to. This is not just an isolated statement — it is the distillation of a LOT of “scripture” in scientology. And explains why the PRACTICE is not altered, just the use of the term.
“Wogs,” the Government and the Media
Hubbard dictates an attitude towards the outside world that is the mindset of every good scientologists. Anyone who is not a scientologist is a “wog” – someone to be treated with a mixture of pity and contempt. Wogs do not understand life. They are ignorant, misinformed or evil. They do not know how to solve their own or mankind’s problems. They are doomed to an eternity of suffering unless they wake up and begin to “apply the tech.”
Hubbard defined a “wog” in a Briefing Course lecture in 1966:
…common, everyday garden-variety humanoid … He ‘is’ a body. [He] doesn’t know he’s there, etc. He isn’t there as a spirit at all. He is not operating as a thetan.
And beneath the pity and contempt for wogs in general is the hatred reserved for Govt Officials, the justice system and the Media (just a step above the dreaded psychiatrists). Hubbard rails repeatedly against “wog justice” and how it cannot be trusted, against FBI Agents and “tax cruds”, against Interpol and the KGB. They are all one big pot of Suppressives trying to destroy scientology. So too the media, who have seen him as a threat to their empire of chaos:
…there must be in our civilization some very disturbing elements for anything else [other than good] to be believed about Scientology. These disturbing elements are the Merchants of Chaos. They deal in confusion and upset. Their daily bread is made by creating chaos. If chaos were to lessen, so would their incomes.
In fact, anyone who has any connection with these sordid types is banned from any participation in scientology.
And the very bottom of the barrel, according to Hubbard, are police and court systems which are “composed of downstats who couldn’t make it in life any other way.”
Hubbard goes on to proclaim (and remember, scientologists are bound to understand and follow his every word):
“Police and justice systems, aided by advice from criminal practitioners such as psychologists and psychiatrists, sink into a belief that all men are criminals. This at once justifies their own vicious practices and excuses their merciless injustices against all men.”
“The FBI… principles are carefully planned wholly on terrorism and conducts itself more lawlessly than any criminal it ever listed as Public Enemy #1….. In the name of “justice” they practice every conceivable perversion of injustice.”
With all this in mind, is it any wonder scientologists will brazenly lie to law enforcement, the media and even while giving sworn testimony under oath? It’s not only for the “greatest good” it’s also directed at those who are held in contempt as being blights on the good people of the world.
Handle it with Scientology
A corollary to the contempt for “wogs” is the belief that everything in life and in the world can be dealt with better, smarter and faster within scientology. The “Wog” justice system is slow, unjust and only helps criminals.
Hubbard also states:
“We have a superior law code and legal system which gives real justice to people…”
“So therefore we must use Scientology tech, admin and justice in all our affairs. No matter how mad it sounds, we only fail when we don’t.”
Every scientologist knows that if they come across a matter that would ordinarily be reported to authorities, that their FIRST and ONLY obligation is to report it to the appropriate person in scientology, usually a representative of the Office of Special Affairs (OSA). If interaction is required with government agencies, OSA will take care of it.
All scientologists believe the organization will take care of any and all matters — and better than “wogs” can do it.
A Hubbard example
To put a cherry on top of this rancid cake, here is a wonderful example from L. Ron Hubbard on HOW to go about destroying someone with lies.
It comes from his infamous writing in 1972 entitled Intelligence Principles. He is describing a hypothetical scenario of how you can “get rid of” an “enemy.” This is EXACTLY the sort of thing done to Paulette Cooper as detailed in Tony Ortega’s book The Unbreakable Miss Lovely. It is one lie to be told after another and he lays out here the model of lying and fakery as standard procedure for scientology when dealing with “enemies.”
Example: Gosh Porge is located as an antagonistic source in the Bureau of Mines. Study Bu of Mines. They frown on corrupt and bankrupt employees, it is carefully worked out by survey. Gosh Porge receives a check for 250 pounds from the Aluminium Company of America at his office for “tip off and patents sent” and “his wife” runs up fur coat bills at Harrods who sue and “a man in Soho” wants his 1800 pounds gambling debt and “a mistress” calls his boss and demands the return of her diamonds “Gosh borrowed” and as it keeps up, even Gosh Porge’s best denials won’t prevent his being sacked.
And “Legal areas” like lawyers are a point of hit also.
Without consulting Legal Bu Bish Smish is suing C of S for truckloads. Survey his attorneys covertly. One finds they detest “people from the City”, very prejudiced against money clauses. So City blokes start appearing on their lines for Bish Smish – will he win the suit? Broker wants to know can Bish Smish cover his margins?
City bowler hat beats up lawyer with an umbrella because Bish Smish said he was going to get the lawyer to sue him over the “blocks of stock” Bish Smish swindled. Keep it up. Soon he won’t have any lawyer!
Real Life Example
There are numerous examples of scientologists provably lying in public — perhaps the most infamous of all is when Tommy Davis said on CNN “There is no such thing as disconnection.”
But, one could argue “that was not lying under oath.” True, so here is an on point example. And for this I refer to my old friend Marty Rathbun’s blog for his posting of 19 August, 2010 entitled Lying in Miscavige’s $70 Million Bunker.
This article not only recounts the fact that the President of RTC, Warren McShane, is kept in his position by Miscavige for the sole reason that he is a good liar under oath (something Miscavige also told me and others) but it documents completely contradictory statements made by McShane to the Riverside County Sheriff’s Office and Tommy Davis in a sworn deposition. McShane swore to the Sheriff’s that he sent 4 people to Corpus Christi Texas to retrieve John Brousseau after he escaped the Int Base. One of the 4 was Tommy Davis. Under oath in deposition, Davis claimed he was NOT sent by anyone and simply went because he was “JB’s friend.” Rathbun also documents other lies told by McShane to the RCSO. I only cite Rathbun for the specific example of scientology officials lying under oath because today scientology itself cites Rathbun as a reliable and trustworthy source of information. They have promoted numerous videos he has done for them over the last couple of years.
And scientologists not only lie, they also destroy evidence. Once again, Marty Rathbun speaks:
Destruction of evidence reported in St Petersburg Times
Rathbun’s deposition testimony on 22 December 2014 concerning destruction of evidence in the Lisa McPherson case:
Q. Was the McPherson case the case in which you have acknowledged that you ordered the destruction of documents?
A. At the behest of David Miscavige, yeah.
Q. So — so the answer is, you ordered the destruction of documents, correct?
A. I forwarded the order to destroy any evidence that might link David Miscavige to the case.
Some Statements from Law Enforcement
In a summary of findings made by the FBI in an investigation they conducted into scientology in 2009, the FBI agents concluded:
“All Sea Org members are instructed how to lie to outsiders and authorities who might inquire of their living and working conditions.”
And this is from the US DOJ Sentencing Memorandum submitted in the case of 11 senior scientologists who pled guilty to infiltrating the US government, obstruction of justice and other charges:
“The brazen and persistent burglaries, thefts and bugging’s directed against the United States Government were but one minor aspect of the defendants wanton assault upon the laws of this country. The well-orchestrated campaign to thwart the federal Grand Jury Investigation by destroying evidence, giving false fingerprints in response to a Grand Jury subpoena, harboring a fugitive, kidnapping a witness, preparing an elaborate cover-up story, and assisting in the giving of false statements to the Grand Jury shows the contempt which these defendants had for the judicial system of this country. Their total disregard for the laws is further made clear by the criminal campaigns of vilification, burglaries, and thefts which they carried out against private and public individuals and organizations and carefully documented in minute detail.
“…these defendants were willing to frame their critics to the point of giving false testimony under oath against them and having them arrested and indicted speaks legion for their disdain for the rule of law. Indeed, they arrogantly placed themselves above the law meting out their personal brand of punishment to those “guilty” of opposing their selfish alms.
“The crimes committed by these defendants is of a breadth and scope previously unheard of. No building, office, desk, or file was safe from their snooping and prying.’ No individual or organization was free from their despicable conspiratorial minds. The tools of their trade were miniature transmitters, lock picks, secret codes, ‘ forged credentials, and any other device they found necessary to carry out their conspiratorial schemes.
“L. Ron Hubbard wrote in his dictionary entitled “Modern Management Technology Defined” that “truth is what is true for you.” Thus, with the founder’s blessings they could wantonly commit perjury as long as it was in the Interest of Scientology. The defendants rewarded criminal activities that ended in success and sternly rebuked those that failed. The standards of human conduct embodied in such practices represent no less than the absolute perversion of any known ethical value system. In view of this, it defies the imagination that these defendants have the unmitigated audacity to seek to defend their actions in the name of “religion,”
This only scratches the surface of the documentation that could be laid out to support the fact that all scientologists lie to protect scientology.
The writings of L. Ron Hubbard MUST be followed in scientology. They are not optional.
Sadly, most people are generally honest and they do not at first blush grasp the concept that someone could simply lie. They have a hard time with the idea that what scientology says about people they do not like could in fact have NO BASIS in truth whatsoever. Often they will invent things based on “surveys” — they think “embezzlement” is unpopular so they accuse whistleblowers of “embezzling money” just like the “mistress” does in the Hubbard example above. They think people find wife-beaters abhorrent, so they find some “City bowler hats” to claim victims of their abuses are wife-beaters. It’s invented and intended to destroy reputations and cost people their jobs, and few can contemplate that a so-called “church” would do such a thing.
Unfortunately, it is also a difficult concept to get police, prosecutors and judges to understand. Scientologists, especially people like Warren McShane or Allen Cartwright (who are sent to do depositions when all else fails so Miscavige can avoid the indignity) will NOT tell the truth, even when under oath, because they “know” it is not the “greatest good” to do so. That sort of lying is not normal in the outside world, but is absolutely the norm in scientology.
So, especially when you see a scientologist talking about an “enemy” or “critic” (often someone who has suffered abuses and spoken out about it) or speaking to the media to “protect” scientology from “negative stories” or testifying in a court case to “save scientology from the evils of wog justice” — know that lies will be the usual, not the aberration.
This blog brings back so many memories o confusion when I first join. I remember thinking hmmm… I should lie to the people who pay to keep up the good PR. I should not lie to seniors even if they are vindictive and harass the shite out if you. You should lie to yourself too so you don’t want blow when you’re making $4 a week. You should believe we are the most ethical group on the planet and yet the guardian office got caught lying cheating and stealing. Sigh. After a while I was depressed from all the lying and PR and shore stories. It became hard to remember the truth. Thank you for this article. Excellent.
Jenny Linson looks terrible and takes suppressive actions herself! Why is she even in LA?
40 plus years later (after escaping), I am ashamed I was an active (if not proud) liar.
Why did any of us unquestioningly comply/agree with these ideas? I went for it hook, line and sinker! What’s worse, it made perfect sense to me!
I was a good little cult follower; I’d do anything to ‘clear the planet’. LRH was covering his ass and we would have laid down our lives to ensure no harm came to him.
We were his army to protect his castle. We did his bidding, accepted pittances for pay, ate food that today I’d spit on and willingly stood and clapped every time he walked into a room for many (but not all) of the 10 years I was ‘in’. He was a ‘god’ to us.
But I can’t blame him; he was shrewd, convincing and also knew how to manipulate and instill fear that made compliance an absolute.
We allowed it to happen. We caved to his dictates.
Today there are people who are, thankfully and courageously, exposing Scientology for what it really is – one of the biggest scams in all of history so that people like I was know better.
NO ACT is too vile for those to whom the end justify the means.
Mary Kahn says
Behaving in a way that accommodates what scientologists expect of another scientologist becomes an all too different breed of cat when one has to behave “appropriately” if one is OT as I became. Then becoming OT VIII is another breed of cat. Many scientologists behave in such a way as to be appealing to others as a scientologist or non-scientologists because one has to create the illusion that Scientology is such a great thing. My last 5 years in scientology were horrible; I felt horrible inside and out; I had an ice pack on my neck every night because the stress was so bad. Did my fellow scientologists know this about me or even my husband or son? No way.
It’s not a lie to be a “social” animal as we are as humans but behaving appropriately as an OT and as a scientologist to the outside world is a lie if its to create the perception that you are doing well internally and externally with the modus operandi of getting another into or just creating a good impression about scientology. Tom Cruise’s behavior as this “uptone” scientologist is a lie. Why do I say that? Because he is covering up the abuses that he and his BFF have exacted on other scientologists for starters.
Fred G. Haseney says
Reading Mike’s blog as well as your comment, Mary, is good therapy. In a way, it is like an Alcoholics Annonymous meeting.
I was a Scientologist. From 1977 to 2014, I lied to myself about Scientology. I lied to others about scientology. Being in the scientology “bubble” made it easy for me to pretend. The emperor never wore any clothes, and I never noticed.
During my time in scientology, I couldn’t talk to anyone openly and honestly about scientology. I could never talk to any other Scientologist about much of anything. Those 37 years were, in many ways, a whitewash. I lived my life as a masquerade — one generic Success Story after another.
Mary Kahn says
Boy. I hear ya.
And I know what you mean about this blog and reading comments as good therapy.
If you don’t mind I’d really like to know what “made you see the light”. Years ago my brother got involved in Scientology but it didn’t last. He met my now sister-in-law she thought the whole things was nuts and she wanted nothing to do with it. He was so head over heels in love I think I he just followed her lead. I still think she’s the best thing that ever happened to him.
Fred Haseney says
Hi, Jenn. Your brother is fortunate to have found a good wife, someone with a good head on her shoulders. It sounds like her intolerance to nonsense kept your sibling away from Scientology. Please tell him I think he’s a lucky man.
In 2010 or so, I lost my job during the recession. A string of calamities followed, culminating in my becoming homeless. Luckily, a faith-based homeless shelter took me in.
The shelter had three homes close to one another: one for women, one for women and their children, and I stayed in their men’s home.
They had quite a program for their residents. In order to live there, there were mandatory requirements, including multiple Bible studies, multiple Church worships as well as weekly meetings with a Case Manager, Chaplain and Counselor (therapist or psychologist).
I had been a Scientologist since 1977 and knew I might never again practice my religion without countless hours of penance if I saw their Counselor. The monetary cost alone of seeking forgivess from Scientology for my seeing a Counselor would be astronomical. Truth be told, I’d probably be banned from Scientology forever.
The shelter knew nothing of my association with Scientology, although the Counselor found out during our first session together. She respected my secret and I grew to respect her.
As a Scientologist, I rarely followed the news. I didn’t own a TV and never Googled “Scientology,” because the Church prohibited it.
One day, in passing, I saw a TV news segment on the late Mary Sue Hubbard. She had died some 14 years prior. Her will had allowed her dog to live like a king in her million dollar home, near the Hollywood Hills in Los Angeles. Only when the dog died would the estate finally go to her rightful heirs (her children).
I respected Scientology’s founder, L. Ron Hubbard, as a Catholic would respect the Pope. Since Hubbard’s wife, Mary Sue, had lived within walking distance of the homeless shelter, I decided to find out the address so that I could walk by and pay homage to her. Yes, pay homage to her.
So, I innocently Googled “Mary Sue Hubbard” for her address. The first result turned out to be Tony Ortega’s blog, “The Underground Bunker.” Not only did I get her address, but I read all about the shenanigans of Scientology. I got a crash course in just how dangerous Scientology is.
Tony’s website gave me more data on Mary Sue, and I asked myself: How could the wife of the Founder of my religion favor a canine over her children? It just didn’t make any sense.
I did walk by her house, but not so much as an homage to her memory, but to the years Scientologists everywhere have lost to the often insane ramblings of the fool who “founded” Dianetics and Scientology.
Sorry you had to go through such a day time. I hope your life has improved since then and you’ve been able to find happiness. All the best to you.
Fred Haseney says
My dealings with scientology, especially when I broke free of them, only made me stronger. Thanks for your support.
Mary Kahn says
Yes. I think you might be right about your sister in-law. Glad your brother found her.
To Jenn: As you can imagine, every “Former-In” has their own tale of what prompted them to leave—their moment when, after many “straws” stacked onto the camel’s back, there is that final one which implodes the whole works.
For me, the pandemic was a primary catalyzer. After three decades of active participation and steady control (doing courses, auditing, donating large sums money I could not afford, juggling loans and credit cards), suddenly my local organization was closed. It was like that movie where the guy gets unplugged from ‘The Matrix.’
Stunning clarity arose, including I could really examine the bizarre practices, seeing the org team “amped up” more than usual (which is already pretty amped) in their quest to retain dominance over my mind and time. (This was in the form of commanding people to be paying for and doing extension courses daily from home.)
Too—and please share this with your brother—the conditions of the pandemic gave me time to fully slow down. In various multi-hour conversations with Scientology friends all over the United States, I could not believe the commonality in our life conditions. Every one of us was deeply in debt, so much debt for “church” of scientology, it was like a drowning or even a desperate financial capsize situation. If vehicle-owning, we had a car in urgent need of repair; if in a home, one or more parts of our home in exquisite and embarrassing disrepair.
With one dear friend who is 50 years-old and has completed four 2.5-year staff contracts at Scientology orgs: he barely pays his child support for his beloved young child, skips paying it frequently; he lives in a family member’s basement; he sees no hope in sight that he will ever be anything but FINANCIALLY in this poor condition. Yet…he wants passionately to be back into an org staff role (?) as soon as he gets his finances to be a little less teetering.
Jenn, it was my deep listening and absorbing of these true tales COMBINED WITH several months of no domineering person at the local org being able to fully wedge their claws into me that “popped” my cork. I finally said these words out loud: “OMG. I am in a cult.” Sterling clarity. Finally.
Maybe an observer would call my gleam of light the product of “a perfect storm,” which featured the unusual conditions of the pandemic. The temporarily closure of all Scientology orgs introduced—enforced even—a perspective I did not even know I needed.
Only when I decided to leave did I take the powerful step of googling “Leaving Scientology.” That opened a flood gate of information and understanding that, for three decades prior, I did not access. I could not, if I wanted to remain in good standing in the group. It truly is a wonder, in this day and age, that ALL Scientologists don’t easily encounter all the factual counter-narrative that demonstrates this is NOT “the most ethical group on the planet.” This group is NOT about helping or “clearing” as its chief motivation. That is frankly (my opinion) a very distant second to COLLECTING YOUR MONEY.
I had for many years, privately, been bothered by the money strong-arming. BUT…I could explain it to myself because I bought so heavily into the oft-repeated mission and urgency of “clearing the planet.” In my doubting moments, I would scold myself, “Stop being so un-serious and falling short in your commitment as a group member.”
Well, of course, that programming is EXACTLY how Scientology “command” wants you to think. What a bizarre mental train wreck, ultimately, to un-do, as a result of participating in a group that claims to have “the corner” on all things spiritual and mental health. The way they are structured and how they operate, they are falling VERY short of this goal.
I join others here in saying: Good on your sister-in-law, a highly analytical individual. Maybe she has a good “Spidey-sense” as well!
Fred Haseney says
Re: “… it was my deep listening and absorbing of these true tales COMBINED WITH several months of no domineering person at the local org being able to fully wedge their claws into me that “popped” my cork.”
Your comment commanded my attention from beginning to end, especially what finally “popped” your cork.
Thanks for sharing your story with this group. If we were still in scientology, such stories would never be shared because it is not allowed.
Fred – I read your insights and remarks to the Mike Rinder blog community and get so much out of them. I deeply value this community. I find it honest, honorable, and constructive.
Fred Haseney says
Peridot–Thank you so much. The qualities you mentioned–being honest, honorable, and constructive–will never be found in scientology. Anyone who is still in that church should take note.